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PostPosted: Thu Jul 10, 2008 1:46 am 

Joined: 10 Jun 2008
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Hi everybody ,

This topic was put in the arab version of the forum by " Dr. Hassan Salama " so all his copyrights are reserved .

This is the link to the original text : http://canaryfans.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=4072" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Cockatiels are from the most beautiful and loveable kinds of parrots . Who kept cockatiels for breeding only is far away from knowing the full truth about these parrots . They are lovely , kind and faithful friend which are almost more loyal than dogs . Your tame cockatiel comes to you when you are happy or sad trying with it's beauty and tenderness to make you smile and have fun . I'm going to write that topic in the memory of " Safi " , the most loyal cockatiel I've ever had .

Cockatiels are like all other creatures . Their characteristics and colors are determined by a group of genes , these genes are carried in each cell by chromosomes . (I'll try to ease that and not to complicate it .)

These chromosomes are classified into two categories : normal body chromosomes which are called " autosomes " and sex-linked chromosomes and are always in even numbers . Each chromosome carries lots and lots of genes that carry the hereditary substance . To make it easier , we can say that each chromosome carries a color trait is confronted with another chromosome carrying another color trait , which might be the same or another . So now which one dominates the other in determining the color ?

This is determined by the dominant and recessive alleles ( genes ) . The dominant dominates and it's color is the visible one . So the dominant color appears if both alleles are similar or different (1 dominant + 1 recessive = split ( carries the gene but isn't visible ) ) , but the recessive won't show up unless both alleles are similar ( 1 recessive + 1 recessive = recessive color trait ) .

It gets a little confusing when adding the sex-linked chromosomes to the previous !

In humans the male determines the sex as he has two chromosomes one is called " X " and the other is called " Y " and the traits are carried only on the gene of " X " . Females have " XX " chromosomes and males have " XY " chromosomes . Then if the male has a trait on the gene of " X " chromosomes it appears . But females have two genes the one which determine the trait is the dominant gene .

Birds are opposite to humans . Which means that the one which determines the sex is the female as it has the chromosomes " XY " , but the male has the similar chromosomes " XX " . So any color trait carried by the female must appear , but a male can carry a trait on one of the two " X "s without appearing . Males can be " Split " as they have 2 Xs and one might be dominant and the other recessive .

- Traits carried on sex-linked chromosomes are called : sex-linked traits .
- Traits carried on normal chromosomes are called : autosomal traits ( autosomal dominant – autosomal recessive ) .
- The color is named in case of mixed mutations by the basic name followed by the others ( e.g. Cinnamon … then other mutations like Pied , Pearl or Whiteface . That's to say Cinnamon Pied Pearl Whiteface ) .

Image

or Cinnamon Pearl Pied

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- Dominant trait is indicated by capital letters ( e.g. G for regular grey ) , and recessive trait is indicated by small letters ( e.g. w for recessive whiteface ) .

First : Autosomal dominant traits :

1- Regular Grey :

It has all the pigment controlling all other colors :
- Melanin pigment is responsible for the grey color in feathers and visible skin , it's also responsible for the dark leg and eye colors .
- Lipochrome pigment is responsible for the yellow face of the male and the yellow colors that are in the tail barrings or inner wing feathers barrings .
- Psittacins pigment is responsible for the orange cheek patches in both male and female cockatiels .
- These pigments don't exist in the wing edges which appear white .

Image


2- Dominant Silver :

Has less melanin pigment thus its color turns from grey to silver . The body keeps melanin pigments in the cells therefore eyes and legs are dark . The best view of a silver bird is the Silver Whiteface .

Image


3- Dominant Yellow Cheek :

Has less Psittacins pigment that is responsible for the orange cheek patches , until the cheek patches turn peach-yellow or blend in the yellow male face .

Image


Second : Autosomal recessive traits :

1- Whiteface :

Melanin pigment occurs but lipochrome and psittacins pigments don't exist , so male cockatiels faces appear totally white without cheek patches . Females have dark faces with little white spots without cheek patches . All the body appears dark grey and the tail and wing barrings appear white .

Image


2- Pied :

Some pigments decreases in some parts and disappears in some others , so these parts appear white or yellow according to the cockatiel type wether it's Regular Grey or Whiteface . Its beauty rises when the two halves of the body are similar and its face is clear .

Image


3- Fallow :

Has less melanin grey pigment then its color turns light brown but the yellow color dominates . Sometimes it looks like Lutino cockatiels . Melanin pigments lessens in cells which makes eyes red .

Image


4- Recessive Silver :

Has less melanin pigment , then the grey color turns into very light silver . It disappears in the cells of the body so eyes and legs appear red , and that what differs this color from the dominant Silver .

Image


5- Olive :

This color is close to the grayish green color and it is one of the most modern mutations .

Image


Third : Sex-linked traits :

1- Lutino : ( recessive sex-linked trait ) :

This gene hides the melanin pigment and keeps the lipochrome pigment which gives the feather the yellow or cream white color as well as tail and wings barrings. The psittacins pigment occurs to give the cheek patches their orange color . The lack of melanin pigment in the cells of the body causes the red color of eyes and pink color of legs . Baldness occurring behind the crest, as an inherited trait and increases by inbreeding .

Image


2- Pearl : ( recessive sex-linked trait ) :

All feathers are spotted with the lipochrome pigment or no pigments which shows a white color on the grey , brown or yellow background . Males lose these pearl lacings by the first molt and continue to lose them on each molt . Females keep these pearl lacings without being lost .

Image

Image


3- Cinnamon : (recessive sex-linked trait ) :

A more pronounced brown shade lacking any grey overtones, is preferred. Some hens may have more yellow (lipochrome pigment) on the face than their normal grey counterparts.

Image


4- Platinum :

Has less melanin pigment , which makes the bird yellow washed with light grey color . Male birds might carry the Lutino gene on X and the Platinum gene on the other X , and is called " Platino " ( Platinum + Lutino ) , this doesn't appear on females of course .

Image

Image


5- Yellow-cheek ( sex-linked ) :

The psittacins pigment doesn't exist , so the cheek patches turn peach-yellow or blend in the yellow male face and washed in females dark face .

Image


6- Albino :

In cockatiels Albino gene doesn't exist , but in fact it's a combination of two color traits one of them is Lutino where melanin pigment disappears and the other is recessive White-face where lipochrome and psittacins pigments disappear . So all feathers appear white , pink legs and red eyes . Actually it's deprived from all pigments and doesn't have a recessive Albino gene .

Image


Best wishes and Good Luck :)




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 10, 2008 6:36 pm 
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Thank you very much.

Keep on the good working.




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 10, 2008 9:56 pm 

Joined: 10 Jun 2008
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Hi Abdo Abu Seir ,

You are welcome :)

Best wishes and good luck !



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PostPosted: Sat Jul 26, 2008 9:54 pm 

Joined: 02 Jul 2008
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Please be aware that Lutino Cockatiel's are more prone to health related problems than other mutations of cockatiels. They are more prone to respiratory problems and blindness. I myself have a 15 years lutino cockatiel who is blind with glaucoma and also struggles with respiratory problems. His condition is untreatable. There is not much you can do for a bird of his size. The surgery alone may be too much for his health and kill him. This is not the case for all lutino cockatiels, but I advise to take extra caution with thier health. Any time something is taken out of nature and mutated, most likely there will be side affects.

Glaucoma:
Ophthalmology. abnormally high fluid pressure in the eye, most commonly caused either by blockage of the channel through which aqueous humor drains (open-angle glaucoma or chronic glaucoma) or by pressure of the iris against the lens, which traps the aqueous humor (angle-closure glaucoma or acute glaucoma).



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Breeder: I do not breed birds, but I care for cockatiels and also volunteer at a bird sanctuary.
PostPosted: Tue Jul 29, 2008 10:15 am 

Joined: 10 Jun 2008
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Hi Lindsay ,

Thank u very much for your valuable information !

Best wishes and good luck :)



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